Albert Carr Is Business Bluffing Ethical Pdf Editor (2023)

Wiley: Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in Corporate Morality. About the Editors xi. Preface xii. General Introduction: The Nature of Business Ethics 1. Part 1 Ethics and Business: From Theory to Practice. Introduction 3. 71 Theories of Economic Justice 4. Justice as Fairness 4.

John Rawls. Distributive Justice 4. Robert Nozick. Distributive Justice and Utilitarianism 5. J. Smart. The “Invisible Hand” 5. Jan Narveson. Corporate Ethics in a Devilish System 7.

Ethical Issues in Business. 1980 Albert Carr,Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Center for Business Ethics at Bentley and editor of the Center. Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Harvard Business Review Jan./Feb.

Kent Greenfield. Questions for Discussion 7. Ethics and Business Decision Making 7. Teaching Ethical Decision Making and Principled Reasoning. Michael Josephson. Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological.

A collection of readings and cases from both philosophical literature and business articles apply ethical theory to. Albert Carr, Is Business Bluffing Ethical. Philosophy for Business is. References Albert Carr 'Is Business Bluffing Ethical. A Government Update' 2004 http://www.societyandbusiness.gov.uk/pdf/dti. What's Fair: Ethics for Negotiators. 17 Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Bentley, and editor of the quarterly journal Business and Society Review. Frederick received a BA degree in.

The Moral Status of Bluffing and Deception in Business. Albert Carr, “Is Business Bluffing Ethical,” in Ethical Issues in Business. Harvard GSAS Business Club “Mini-MBA” Summer 2013. Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Editor Created Date: 7/15. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Business Ethics. The paper refers to various examples including some from 'Is Business Bluffing Ethical?' by Albert Carr. Russell Ford, Elmhurst College. Albert Carr&amp.

He is also Research Scholar at the Center for Business Ethics at Bentley and editor of the. Is business bluffing ethical by albert carr male. Have you tried the PDF Repair Tool. Download full text in PDF. Albert Carl 'Is Business Bluffing Ethical?'. Albert Carr Is Business Bluffing Ethical?

Albert Z Carr Everyone agrees that business managers must. ETHICS and the CONDUCT of BUSINESS. Albert Carr argues that ethical conduct in. Series editor(s): William Sun. 1980 Albert Carr,Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Carr, 'Is Business Bluffing Ethical.

Business Bluffing Ethical Albert Carr Pdf. Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Managing Editor: Lou Walker. Versial articles in business ethics is Albert Carr's 'Is Business Bluffing Ethical?'. In that article Carr argues that.

Perspective 8. 6Joseph Heath. Ethical Leadership and the Psychology of Decision Making. David M. Bazerman. Cost- Benefit Analysis: An Ethical Critique 1. Steven Kelman. Cost- Benefit Analysis Defended 1. Herman B. Leonard and Richard J. Zeckhauser. Questions for Discussion 1.

It is the business of ethics to tell us what. Albert Carr advocates conventionalism in. Examples from Carr’s “Is Business Bluffing Ethical?”, pp. Philosophy for Business Issue 51 31 January 2009. Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Albert Carr contends that. Carr With Letters to the Editor O N O T CO.

Cases for Part 1 1. Mini- Cases 1. 31. MBA Student Mini- Dilemmas 1. Cases. The Parable of the Sadhu 1. Bowen H. Mc. Coy.

The Ford Pinto 1. W. Michael Hoffman. The Analyst’s Dilemma (A) 1. Joseph L. 1. 49. Roger Lowenstein.

The Ok Tedi Copper Mine 1. Manuel G. Velasquez. Part 2 The Nature of the Corporation 1. Introduction 1. 57.

The Editor s Chair Is Business Ethics. In a similar vein are Albert Carr s comments in Is Business Bluffing. Professor Werhane has published numerous articles and is the author or editor. Ethical Issues in Business A Philosophical Approach 8th edition by Thomas Donaldson available. Albert Carr, Is Business Bluffing Ethical. Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Business Ethics Editor's note. Carr, 'Is Business Bluffing Ethical?,'.

Agency, Legitimacy, and Responsibility 1. Can a Corporation Have a Conscience? Goodpaster and John B. Matthews Jr. Is Business Bluffing Ethical? Carr. The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. Milton Friedman. Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation 1.

R. Edward Freeman. Ethics in Business: Two Skeptical Challenges 1. Robert E. Frederick. Commentary on the Social Responsibility of Corporate Entities. Bad and Not- so- Bad Arguments for Shareholder Primacy 2. Lynn A. Stout. Questions for Discussion 2. Corporate Governance and Accountability 2.

Who Rules the Corporation? Ralph Nader, Mark Green, and Joel Seligman. Power and Accountability: The Changing Role of the Corporate. Board of Directors 2.

Irving S. Shapiro. Who Should Control the Corporation? Henry Mintzberg. Tone at the Top: An Ethics Code for Directors? Dunfee, and Michael J.

Kline. Do CEOs Get Paid Too Much? Jeffrey Moriarty. Questions for Discussion 2. Cases for Part 2 2. Mini- Cases 2. 75. MBA Student Mini- Dilemmas 2.

Cases. Fire Destroys Malden Mills 2. Anonymous. Merck & Co., Inc. Schwartz. Part 3 Work in the Corporation 3. Introduction 3. 01. Employee Rights and Duties 3.

Employee Rights 3. Ronald Duska. Human Rights, Workers’ Rights, and the “Right”. Occupational Safety 3. Tibor R. Machan. Whistle- Blowing 3.

Richard T. De George. The Morality of Whistleblowing: A Commentary on Richard T. Michael Hoffman and Mark S. Schwartz. Conflicts of Interest 3. Thomas L. Carson.

The Moral Problem in Insider Trading 3. Alan Strudler. Questions for Discussion 3. The Modern Workplace: Obligations and Limits 3.

A Kantian Theory of Meaningful Work 3. Norman E. Bowie. Organization of Work in the Company and Family Rights of the. Employees 3. 92. Dom? Claudia Mills. Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women. Executives as Change Agents 4. Myrtle P. Mc. Laughlin, and Jennifer M.

Sally Seymour. Heineken NV: Workplace HIV/AIDS Programs in Africa (A) 4. Diana Barrett and Daniella Ballou. Banking: A Crack in the Swiss Vault 4.

Andy Court and Keith Sharman. Will Rewards for Whistleblowers Encourage Ethical Behavior? Michael Hoffman. Boeing Chief is Ousted after Admitting Affair 4. Leslie Wayne. Abuse Scandal Inquiry Damns Paterno and Penn State 4. Ken Belson. Timeline: The Penn State Scandal 4. Justin Sablich, Ford Fessenden, and Alan Mc.

Lean. You’ve Been Tagged! Kidder. Part 4 The Corporation in Society 4. Introduction 4. 75. The Consumer 4. 81.

The Dependence Effect 4. John Kenneth Galbraith.

The Non Sequitur of the “Dependence Effect”. F. Velasquez. Marketing and the Vulnerable 5. George G. Brenkert. Questions for Discussion 5. The Environment and Sustainability 5. Morality, Money, and Motor Cars 5. Norman Bowie. Business and Environmental Ethics 5.

W. Michael Hoffman. Creating Sustainable Value 5. Stuart L. Milstein. Rethinking the Concept of Sustainability 5. Alexis J. Mc. Nulty. Questions for Discussion 5.

International Business 5. Ethical Dilemmas for Multinational Enterprise: A Philosophical. Overview 5. 53. Richard T. De George. International Business, Morality, and the Common Good 5. Manuel G. Velasquez. Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home 5.

Thomas Donaldson. The Case for Leveraged- Based Corporate Human Rights.

Responsibility 5. Stepan Wood. What’s Wrong with Bribery 6.

Scott Turow. Capitalism with a Human Face: The UN Global Compact 6. Klaus M. Leisinger. Questions for Discussion 6. Cases for Part 4 6. Mini- Cases 6. 22. MBA Student Mini- Dilemmas 6.

Cases. The Ethics of Marketing: Nestl. Post. Trans. Auto Corporation Trade- offs 6.

Rewritten by Mark S. Schwartz. Sony Online Entertainment: Ever. Quest? Spain and Gina Vega. Dicing with Death?

A Case Study of Guidant Corporation’s. Implantable Defibrillator Business 6. Martin E. Sandbu. Chiquita Accused of Funding Colombia Terrorists 6. Curt Anderson. Wal- Mart Hushed Up a Vast Mexican Bribery Case 6. David Barstow. Yahoo!

Kline. Google Softens Tone on China 6. Amir Efrati and Loretta Chao. Part 5 Challenges and Emerging Issues 6. Introduction 6. 65.

C hallenges and Emerging Issues 6. What’s the Matter with Business Ethics? Andrew Stark. Developing and Sustaining an Ethical Corporate Culture: The Core. Elements 6. 77. Mark S. Schwartz. The Ethics Officer as Agent of the Board: Leveraging Ethical. Governance Capability in the Post- Enron Corporation 6. W. Michael Hoffman and Mark Rowe.

Can a Company be Too Ethical? Singer. God as a Managerial Stakeholder? Schwartz. The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid 7. C. Prahalad and Stuart L. Hart. Questions for Discussion 7. Business Ethics in Hollywood Movies 7.

Mark S. Schwartz. Cases for Part 5 7. Mini- Cases 7. 35. Cases. Global Corporation: Running a Global Ethics and Compliance. Program 7. 36. Lisa A. Stewart. Barrick’s Tanzanian Project Tests Ethical Mining Policies. Geoffrey York. An Ethical Approach to Crisis Management 7.

Mark S. Schwartz, Wesley Cragg, and W. Michael Hoffman. Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs 7.

FAQs

What does Albert Carr mean by bluffing in business why does he think that business bluffing is ethical explain? ›

According to Albert Carr in the article “Is Business Bluffing Ethical?”, bluffing is morally acceptable within the parameters of doing business. Carr argues that bluffing in business is closer to the strategic bluffing normally found in poker, than it is to bluffing in private life.

What is bluffing in business ethics? ›

Bluffing is a motive to gain speed in a business setting and not aid the consumer. When a product uses puffery and fails, it simply removes itself from the market, without.

Why does Carr think that the ethics of business is like the ethics of poker? ›

Carr demonstrates that in poker, lying and dishonesty are benefits; whereas in normal circumstances those traits are immoralities. It is therefore a mistake to judge business practices by rules of everyday morality. Thus, by businesses obeying their own moral standards their practices are morally acceptable.

What does Carr mean by game strategy? ›

The art of Business Bluffing, as Carr would describe it is “simply as game strategy—much like bluffing in poker.”(A. Carr) However, it could more aptly be described as lying, cheating, and bribing all in the name of achieving business objectives.

What is the difference between bluffing and lying? ›

Bluffs were defined as deceptions that are acceptable to both parties during negotiation, while lies were defined as deceptions that are unacceptable to both parties.

Who was Albert Carr? ›

Albert Z. Carr, a writer, an economist and a consultant to two Presidents, died apparently of a heart attack at his home yesterday. He was 69 years old and lived at 290 Ninth Avenue. During World War II Mr.

Is bluffing in negotiation ethical? ›

Bluffing is considered a moral-free negotiating tactic that even has to be learned,” as WHU researcher Dr. Jörg Rottenburger summed up.

How important is bluff in negotiation? ›

Bluffing is rare in collaborative negations, but can be an effective tool to generate concessions if used sparingly and with full understanding of the consequences. Bluffing is extremely risky because if the other side calls your Bluff, you must follow through. Lying is never acceptable in collaborative negotiations.

Is it ethical to lie or bluff in negotiation? ›

Most ethical codes put limits on lying in negotiations, but they tend to protect puffing and bluffing, especially if the misrepresentation involves estimates of price or value placed on the subject of the negotiation, the party's intention to settle at a certain number, if at all, or, in certain circumstances, the ...

What does Carr suggest about the effect the Internet is having on us? ›

'The Shallows': This Is Your Brain Online Author Nicholas Carr is says the Internet is changing the way we think — and not for the better. In his new book, The Shallows, he laments that the Web has returned humans to the "natural state of distractedness" that served us well back when we were cavemen.

What are the principle of business ethics? ›

The discipline comprises corporate responsibility, personal responsibility, social responsibility, loyalty, fairness, respect, trustworthiness, and technology ethics. It emphasizes sustainability, customer loyalty, brand image, and employee retention.

Is deception in business morally permissible or not? ›

According to this ethical immunity claim, businesspersons are exempt from the ordinary ethical prohibition against deception; and widespread business deception is therefore ethically permissible.

How might ethics and the law conflict? ›

The intended purpose of many laws may be to uphold the ethical right; however, ethics and law sometimes conflict because laws can be unethical and what is right may be against the law. This is especially true when the creator of the law is morally corrupt.

Which statement is true concerning moral principles and self interests? ›

Which statement is true concerning moral principles and self interests? Morality serves to restrain our purely self-interested desires so that we can all live together.

What is the either or conundrum? ›

The either/or conundrum is an example of moral relativism. T. Pressure contributes to the use of the either/or test for resolving ethical dilemmas. T. The 2009 corruption index shows that Iraq is considered the most corrupt country.

What is an example of a bluff? ›

A bluff is a small, rounded cliff that usually overlooks a body of water, or where a body of water once stood. Sam's Throne, above, is a bluff in the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Sam's Throne overlooks the flood plain of Big Creek Valley. A bluff is a type of broad, rounded cliff.

What does you bluffing mean? ›

/blʌf/ us. /blʌf/ to deceive someone by making them think either that you are going to do something when you really have no intention of doing it, or that you have knowledge that you do not really have, or that you are someone else: Is he going to jump or is he only bluffing?

What does called your bluff mean? ›

: to challenge someone's statement or threat because it is not believed When she threatened to quit her job, her boss called her bluff and told her she could leave if she wanted to.

Is lying unethical? ›

Lying is generally perceived as unethical behaviour. Depending on the moral theory used, lying in special circumstances (for example, “white” lies or lies that benefit others or avert harm) might be morally justifiable.

Which are global trends in ethics? ›

Global Ethics and Social Responsibility

These include respecting local practices and customs, ensuring that there is harmony between the organization's staff and the host population, providing management leadership, and developing a solid group of local managers who will be a credit to their community.

Which is a legitimate worry when trying to base the law on moral standards? ›

Our laws should be grounded on the best available moral standards. Which is a legitimate worry when trying to base the law on moral standards? Legislators may disagree about which are the right moral standards.

What is bluffing in negotiations? ›

Bluffing in negotiations involves attempting to deceive others about one's intentions or negotiating position. In the United States, it is common, often a matter of course, for people to misstate their intentions during business negotiations.

What is puffery in negotiation? ›

Statements regarding a party's negotiating goals or willingness to compromise, as well as statements that constitute mere posturing or “puffery,” are among those that are not considered verifiable statements of fact.

What is meant by the phrase technological ethics? ›

Technology ethics is the application of ethical thinking to the practical concerns of technology. The reason technology ethics is growing in prominence is that new technologies give us more power to act, which means that we have to make choices we didn't have to make before.

How can you tell if someone is bluffing? ›

10 Easy Ways to Tell if Someone is Bluffing in Poker
  1. Talking Too Much - False Bravado. ...
  2. Acting Too Quickly. ...
  3. Raise Flop Percentage Above 20% ...
  4. 3Bet Percentage By Position. ...
  5. Story Doesn't Make Any Sense. ...
  6. Fish on Tilt. ...
  7. Large Bet Sizing. ...
  8. Looks You Right in the Eye.

How do you spot a bluff in negotiation? ›

If for example they say, “I've had a better offer from your competitor”, ask them open questions about the specifics of the “better offer”, for instance what was included/excluded in the offer, etc. If they hesitate and are unable to answer fluently and coherently it is likely they are bluffing.

What is a distributive bargaining? ›

Distributive bargaining is an adversarial type of negotiation in which it is assumed that any gain of a competitor is a loss to the other party. In game theory, that scenario is known as a zero-sum game. Distributive bargaining is a realistic approach to some situations.

Why you should not lie in business? ›

If you're caught in a lie, it could cost you in a number of ways: It's embarrassing. You lose credibility and trust with the customer. It can give you a bad reputation as an individual.

Can you lie during settlement negotiations? ›

Bar ethics rules prohibit lawyers from lying outright. The American Bar Association in model professional rule 4.1 says that it's unacceptable for lawyers to “knowingly make a false statement of material fact or law” when representing a client.

Is it legal to lie in negotiations? ›

There are thus no legal problems with lying about how much you might be willing to pay or which of several issues in a negotiation you value more highly. Demands and reservation prices are not, as a matter of law, material to a deal.

Do you agree with Carr's central argument why or why not? ›

Carr's argument is ineffective because of his inability to successfully provide reliable sources in order to effectively support his claim that the Internet is altering the way one thinks. Carr uses a great deal of rhetorical appeals, though they are not used in a way that connects them all together.

What message does Carr convey with this analogy? ›

Nicholas Carr uses an analogy to convey the differences in book learning and internet learning. He makes the argument that book learning is superior to internet learned information.

Does it matter Nicholas Carr summary? ›

About the summary

In Does IT Matter?, Carr argues that IT has become a commodity, and because the very nature of strategy requires differentiation, IT cannot possibly qualify. IT can be used to supplement and improve strategy implementation, but it is not the foundation of a competitive advantage.

What are the 7 principles of ethics PDF? ›

The principles are beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice; truth-telling and promise-keeping.

What are the 3 types of business ethics? ›

Types of Business Ethics
  • Personal responsibility. Each person who works for a business, whether on the executive level or the entry-level, will be expected to show personal responsibility. ...
  • Corporate responsibility. ...
  • Loyalty. ...
  • Respect. ...
  • Trustworthiness. ...
  • Fairness. ...
  • Community and Environmental Responsibility.

What are the 7 principle of ethics in business? ›

There are seven principles of business ethics including accountability, care and respect, honesty, healthy competition, loyalty, transparency, and respect for the rule of law.

What is Albert Carr's theory? ›

Albert Carr argues that business is a game and that business ethics differs from private life ethics that individuals practice. Carr explains that practices such as bluffing and not telling the whole truth are morally acceptable in business context.

Is it ethical to lie in business? ›

The broad conclusion, though, seems clear: across cultures, 1) lying generally is seen as wrong, but 2) lying in a business negotiation is seen as acceptable to many. The latter is viewed as morally less problematic than lying in many other contexts.

What is bluffing in the workplace? ›

Bluffing is when you try to make someone believe what is not the truth by appearing highly confident. In other words, bluffing implies deceiving a person into believing something that is not true or convincing them to trust something which is not correct.

What is difference between law and ethics? ›

Laws are a set of rules and regulations enforced by the government or authorities while ethics are morals and principles adapted by society from the environment. Failure to follow laws can result in penalties and punishment while ethics do not attract penalties and punishment.

How would you handle an ethical conflict? ›

How to Act and React to an Ethical Dilemma
  1. Repeat Back and Clarify. ...
  2. Ask Ethical Questions. ...
  3. Focus on your Manager's Best Interests. ...
  4. Suggest an Alternative Solution. ...
  5. Escalate Situations. ...
  6. Blow the whistle. ...
  7. Leave Unethical Environments, If Necessary.
13 Jan 2022

Are rules of etiquette always moral rules? ›

Rules of etiquette are always moral rules. An individual does not have to follow the code of one's profession. Bystander apathy appears to result in part from diffusion of responsibility. Most people don't distinguish between a person's "morals" and his or her "ethics."

Why is it important for organizations to apply and practice business ethics? ›

Business ethics enhances the law by outlining acceptable behaviors beyond government control. Corporations establish business ethics to promote integrity among their employees and gain trust from key stakeholders, such as investors and consumers.

When ethical relativism is put into practice it implies that? ›

Ethical relativism is the theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one's culture. That is, whether an action is right or wrong depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced. The same action may be morally right in one society but be morally wrong in another.

Do or don't you regret both? ›

Sören Kierkegaard 1813–55

My honest opinion and my friendly advice is this: do it or do not do it—you will regret both. People understand me so little that they do not even understand when I complain of being misunderstood. Life must be understood backwards; but…it must be lived forwards.

What is the point of either or? ›

A common interpretation of Either/Or presents the reader with a choice between two approaches to life. There are no standards or guidelines which indicate how to choose. The reasons for choosing an ethical way of life over the aesthetic only make sense if one is already committed to an ethical way of life.

Do it or don't do it you will regret both Kierkegaard? ›

Believe a girl, you will regret it; if you do not believe her, you will also regret it; if you believe a girl or you do not believe her, you will regret both; whether you believe a girl or you do not believe her, you will regret both.

Is bluffing in negotiation ethical? ›

Bluffing is considered a moral-free negotiating tactic that even has to be learned,” as WHU researcher Dr. Jörg Rottenburger summed up.

Is it ethical to lie or bluff in negotiation? ›

Most ethical codes put limits on lying in negotiations, but they tend to protect puffing and bluffing, especially if the misrepresentation involves estimates of price or value placed on the subject of the negotiation, the party's intention to settle at a certain number, if at all, or, in certain circumstances, the ...

Is it ethical to lie in business? ›

The broad conclusion, though, seems clear: across cultures, 1) lying generally is seen as wrong, but 2) lying in a business negotiation is seen as acceptable to many. The latter is viewed as morally less problematic than lying in many other contexts.

Is lying unethical? ›

Lying is generally perceived as unethical behaviour. Depending on the moral theory used, lying in special circumstances (for example, “white” lies or lies that benefit others or avert harm) might be morally justifiable.

What is example of bluff? ›

Examples of bluff in a Sentence

Adjective he's a bluff but good-hearted teacher Verb She says someone else has made her a higher offer, but I think she's bluffing. Don't listen to his threats—he's just bluffing you. I bluffed my way through the interview.

What is bluffing in negotiations? ›

Bluffing in negotiations involves attempting to deceive others about one's intentions or negotiating position. In the United States, it is common, often a matter of course, for people to misstate their intentions during business negotiations.

What are the principle of business ethics? ›

The discipline comprises corporate responsibility, personal responsibility, social responsibility, loyalty, fairness, respect, trustworthiness, and technology ethics. It emphasizes sustainability, customer loyalty, brand image, and employee retention.

How important is bluff in negotiation? ›

Bluffing is rare in collaborative negations, but can be an effective tool to generate concessions if used sparingly and with full understanding of the consequences. Bluffing is extremely risky because if the other side calls your Bluff, you must follow through. Lying is never acceptable in collaborative negotiations.

Why you should not lie in business? ›

If you're caught in a lie, it could cost you in a number of ways: It's embarrassing. You lose credibility and trust with the customer. It can give you a bad reputation as an individual.

Can you lie during settlement negotiations? ›

Bar ethics rules prohibit lawyers from lying outright. The American Bar Association in model professional rule 4.1 says that it's unacceptable for lawyers to “knowingly make a false statement of material fact or law” when representing a client.

What is it called when a business lies? ›

A fraud is an intentionally false representation made with the intent to mislead the listener, and that the listener relied on "to her detriment." The first part means that fraud must involve an intentional lie.

What are some common types of dishonesty in business? ›

Dishonesty in the workplace can take many different forms including:
  • Stealing of the employer's money out of the till, petty cash box or safe.
  • Taking of business merchandise.
  • Unauthorised and undisclosed use of employer's equipment.
  • False claims of illness as reason for absence from work.

What is unethical business practices? ›

The unethical business practices definition encompasses anything that falls below minimum standards for business code of conduct. This includes any behaviors that are widely accepted as being morally wrong and lead to the mistreatment of people, animals, or the environment.

What is an example of unethical behavior? ›

Unethical: “A student used plagiarism on their final written assignment to get a higher grade” This is unethical because it goes against social norms and the majority of the people would find this act unacceptable.

What is a good reason to lie? ›

However, of the most common motives for telling lies, avoiding punishment is the primary motivator for both children and adults. Other typical reasons include protecting ourselves or others from harm, maintaining privacy, and avoiding embarrassment, to name a few.

Why do people lie for no reason? ›

People who lie repeatedly often have a desire to be in control. When the truth of a situation doesn't agree with such control, they produce a lie that does conform to the narrative they desire. Such people may also worry they won't be respected if the truth can leave them looking poorly.

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